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Disease Epidemiology can be controlled if public health specialists and health services managers work together and share skills. There is need for public health physicians, on-clinical public health specialists and health service managers to find an intellectual focus for joint working since their respective skills are complementary. Whereas public health has looked outwards towards the health needs of the population, health care management has focused inwards on the organization of health services. The concept of public health management offers a unifying focus. It centers on the mobilization of society's resources, including those of the health service sector, to improve the health of populations through whatever means is most appropriate. The study explores the concept of public health management, analyses the skills required for its successful practice and considers the training programs required to develop public health care managers.
Nutrition is the intake of food considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition is an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity. Poor nutrition leads to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Food provides our bodies with the energy, protein, essential fats, vitamins and minerals to live, grow and function properly. We need a wide variety of different foods to provide the right amounts of nutrients for good health. Enjoyment of a healthy diet can also be one of the great cultural pleasures of life. The foods and dietary patterns that promote good nutrition should be disseminated across. An unhealthy diet increases the risk of many diet-related diseases.
World Health Organization (WHO) defined occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards. Health has been defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) also commonly referred to workplace health and safety (WHS) is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. These terms also refer to the goals of this field. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include fostering a safe and healthy work environment. Occupational Safety and Health may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. In common-law jurisdictions, employers have a common law duty to take reasonable care of the safety of their employees.
The global strategy for women and children's health meets this challenge head on. It sets out the key areas where action is urgently required to enhance financing, strengthen policy and improve service delivery. These include support for health plans be increased; integrated delivery of health services and life-saving interventions so women and their children can access prevention, treatment and care when and where they need it; stronger health systems with sufficient skilled health workers at their core; innovative approaches to financing, product development and the efficient delivery of health services; improved monitoring and evaluation to ensure the accountability of all actors for results. With the right policies, adequate and fairly distributed funding, and a relentless resolve to deliver to those who need it most. We can and will make a life-changing difference for current and future generations.
Healthcare Associated Infections are infections that patients get while receiving treatment for medical or surgical conditions, and many healthcare associated infections are preventable. Modern healthcare employs many types of invasive devices and procedures to treat patients and to help them recover. Infections can be associated with procedures like surgery and the devices used in medical procedures, such as catheters or ventilators. Healthcare associated infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality across the world and are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Common types Healthcare Associated Infections include catheter-associated urinary tract infections; surgical site infections; bloodstream infections; pneumonia, and clostridium difficile.
Research suggests many of these infections are preventable and manageable. Efforts are under way to expand implementation of strategies known to prevent healthcare associated infections, advance development of effective prevention tools, and explore new prevention approaches. Many efforts to prevent healthcare associated infections have focused on acute care settings. Health care delivery including complex procedures is being shifted to outpatient settings such as ambulatory surgical centers, end-stage renal disease facilities, and long-term care facilities. These settings often have limited capacity for oversight and infection control compared to hospital-based settings. Because patients with healthcare associated infections caused by antibiotic resistance organisms often move between various types of health care facilities. Prevention efforts must also expand across the continuum of care. The challenges posed by antibiotic-resistant organisms and C. difficile are best addressed through coordinated action among health care facilities in a given region.
Hospital Management emphasizes much on inclusive training in the management of hospitals which involves processes such as human resource management, maintaining health information and creating precise medical billing. Hospital management should be equipped with the knowledge of all hospital procedures such as accounting, hospital systems, healthcare regulations and patient privacy rights, and above all able to manage public healthcare in clinical and hospital settings. In every health care setting, including hospitals, health centers and clinics; coordination is the soul of hospital management. Therefore in the hospital setting having such advanced technology in health care facilities; a host of facilities and features need to be integrated and synchronized, thus requires a strict coordination. Advanced technology is an important factor in the hospital facility and functions.
Primary Health Care (PHC) refers to essential health care that is based on scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community. It is through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. In other words, Primary Health Care is an approach to health beyond the traditional health care system that focuses on health equity-producing social policy. Primary Health Care includes all areas that play a role in health, such as access to health services, environment and lifestyle. Thus, primary healthcare and public health measures taken together may be considered as the cornerstones of universal health systems.
Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases is concerned with the improving epidemiologic capacity in chronic disease prevention and health promotion programs is that chronic disease program managers and public health decision makers may have a limited understanding of basic chronic disease epidemiology functions. The research and study describe the assessment process of data collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination, and, using examples from two states, illustrates how this approach can be used to support program and policy development in three areas: by defining the problem, finding programs that work, and evaluating the effects of the program over time. Given the significant burden of chronic diseases in the world, the scientific guidance provided by epidemiology is essential to help public health identify priorities and intervene with evidence-based and effective prevention and control programs.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents non-infectious or non-transmissible that is affecting the public health. Non-communicable diseases refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time progressing slowly. Sometimes, non-communicable diseases result in rapid deaths such as seen in certain diseases such as autoimmune diseases, heart diseases, stroke, cancers, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and others. While sometimes referred to as synonymous with chronic diseases, non-communicable diseases are distinguished only by their non-infectious cause, not necessarily by their duration, though some chronic diseases of long duration may be caused by infections. Chronic diseases require chronic care management, as do all diseases that are slow to develop and of long duration.
Everyone who needs medicine to avoid unintended pregnancy, prevent infection, or treat disease must receive the right drug in the right dose at the right time at an affordable cost. This is the concept of pharmaceutical management. Pharmaceutical management study include in improving policies and regulations, enforcing compliance, and developing robust systems to procure medicines and supplies, assure their quality, store them securely. There is every need to develop state-of-the-art training programs and tools to assist providers in managing medicines and commodities at all levels of the health system. Hospital management training varies widely depending on the area of specialty, amount of experience, and level of responsibility. Hospital managers plan, maintain, organize, and administer the delivery of its healthcare services internally and in coordination with its networks and other related systems.
A mental disorder also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional. The causes of mental disorders are often unclear. Mental disorders are usually defined by a combination of how a person behaves, feels, perceives, or thinks. This may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain, often in a social context. A mental disorder is one aspect of mental health. Cultural and religious beliefs, as well as social norms, should be taken into account when making a diagnosis.
Clean water, basic toilets and good hygiene practices are essential for the survival and development of children. Today there are around 2.4 billion people who do not use improved sanitation and 663 million who do not have access to improved water sources. Without these basic needs, the lives of millions of children especially and public generally are at risk. For children under age five, water-and-sanitation-related diseases are one of the leading causes of death. Every day, over 800 children die from preventable diseases caused by poor water, and a lack of sanitation and hygiene. Sanitation system aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop transmission of diseases.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health. Environmental public health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health, whereas environmental protection is concerned with protecting the natural environment for the benefit of human health and the ecosystem. Environmental health has been defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially affect health. The environmental health profession had its modern-day roots in the sanitary and public health movement
Health Research & Education is concerned with the studies on research on public health. In recent years there has been a significant shift in our understanding of the factors that determine human health. Greater attention is being paid to a range of social, economic, environmental and health service factors that interact in complex ways to influence the health of individuals and populations. The following issues contribute a lot in public health research and education. They are aging, mental health and addictions, community health promotion, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, aging, obesity, women's health, cardiovascular disease, health informatics, bioethics, environment and health, and biomedical research. The research and education should focus on a range of health issues and healthcare delivery in a rich environment for epidemiological research that addresses health concerns on a local, national, and international scale.
Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration. Example scenarios are ageing populations, population growth, or population decline. In the past 30 years, population dynamics has been complemented by evolutionary game theory developed first by John Maynard Smith. Under these dynamics, evolutionary biology concepts may take a deterministic mathematical form. Population dynamics overlap with another active area of research in mathematical biology or mathematical epidemiology, and the study of infectious disease affecting populations. Various models of viral spread have been proposed and analyzed, and provide important results that may be applied to health policy decisions.
The sociology of health and illness examines the interaction between society and health. The objective of this topic is to see how social life affects morbidity and mortality rate, and vice versa. This aspect of sociology differs from medical sociology in that this branch of sociology discusses health and illness in relation to social institutions such as family, employment, and school. The sociology of medicine limits its concern to the patient-practitioner relationship and the role of health professionals in society. The sociology of health and illness covers sociological pathology causes of disease and illness, reasons for seeking particular types of medical aid and patient compliance or noncompliance with medical regimes. Sociologists have demonstrated that the spread of diseases is heavily influenced by the socioeconomic status of individuals, ethnic traditions or beliefs, and other cultural factors. Sociological perspectives on illnesses provide insight on what external factors causing the demographics that contracted the disease to become ill.